Our research interests lie at the interface of biotechnology and nanotechnology. ��We are designing nanoscale polyvalent therapeutics and working on the molecular engineering of biosurfaces and nanostructures. ��The design of polyvalent molecules presenting multiple copies of a specific ligand represents a promising strategy to inhibit pathogens and bacterial toxins. We have contributed to a fundamental mechanistic understanding of polyvalent recognition and have designed polyvalent inhibitors based on various scaffolds, including polymers and liposomes, that are effective in vivo. ��We are designing polyvalent molecules and developing optogenetic tools to control the function of cells, including stem cells. ��We also have experience in controlling protein activity and stability by tuning its nanoscale environment. ��We have contributed to the identification of bacteriolytic enzymes and the design of antimicrobial nanocomposites.